Posted By Shahid Malla

Top 50 Linux Commands and their Usage with Examples - Shahid Malla - WHMCS Expert Freelancer

Embarking on your Linux journey? Let’s unravel the power of the command line with this guide to the top 50 Linux commands. Each command comes with straightforward examples to help you grasp their usage effortlessly.

Here are the top 50 Linux commands and their usage with examples

Guide to the Top 50 Commands with Easy Examples

1. ls – Listing Files and Directories:
Navigate your file system like a pro. Learn how to use ls to list files and directories, and customize the output to suit your needs.

  • Example: ls – List files and directories in the current directory.

2. cd – Changing Directories:
Move seamlessly through your directories with the cd command. We’ll explore changing directories, navigating relative paths, and moving between folders effortlessly.

  • Example: cd Documents – Change to the “Documents” directory.

3. cp – Copying Files and Directories:
Make duplicates of files and directories with the cp command. We’ll cover basic copying and more advanced scenarios.

  • Example: cp file.txt backup/ – Copy “file.txt” to the “backup” directory.

4. mv – Moving and Renaming:
Discover how to relocate files or rename them with the versatile mv command. It’s not just about moving – it’s about managing your files efficiently.

  • Example: mv oldfile.txt newfile.txt – Rename “oldfile.txt” to “newfile.txt”.

5. rm – Removing Files and Directories:
Clean up your space with the rm command. We’ll guide you through safely deleting files and directories, and avoiding common pitfalls.

  • Example: rm unwantedfile.txt – Remove the “unwantedfile.txt” file.

6. mkdir – Creating Directories:
Need to create a new directory? Use mkdir to make organizing your files a breeze.

  • Example: mkdir newfolder – Create a new directory named “newfolder”.

7. touch – Creating Empty Files:
Create empty files effortlessly using the touch command. We’ll show you how to use this command to your advantage.

  • Example: touch newfile.txt – Create an empty file named “newfile.txt”.

8. cat – Displaying File Content:
Unlock the content of files with the cat command. Whether it’s a quick peek or viewing the entire file, we’ve got you covered.

  • Example: cat myfile.txt – Display the content of “myfile.txt”.

9. grep – Searching Text in Files:
Become a text-searching ninja with grep. Learn how to search for specific patterns within files and make your work more efficient.

  • Example: grep "keyword" file.txt – Search for the word “keyword” in “file.txt”.

10. chmod – Changing File Permissions:
Understand file permissions with chmod. We’ll guide you through changing permissions for users, groups, and others.

  • Example: chmod 755 myfile.txt – Give read, write, and execute permissions to the owner, and read and execute permissions to others.

11. chown – Changing File Ownership:
Take control of file ownership using chown. Learn to modify the owner and group associated with a file.

  • Example: chown user:group myfile.txt – Change the owner and group of “myfile.txt”.

12. ps – Viewing Process Information:
Explore the ps command to view information about running processes on your system. It’s your window into what’s happening behind the scenes.

  • Example: ps aux – Display detailed information about all running processes.

13. kill – Terminating Processes:
When it’s time to say goodbye to a process, use kill. We’ll walk you through terminating processes gracefully.

  • Example: kill -9 PID – Forcefully terminate a process with a specific PID.

14. top – Monitoring System Resources:
Keep an eye on your system’s performance with top. Learn how to monitor CPU, memory, and other critical resources in real-time.

  • Example: top – Display real-time system resource usage.

15. df – Checking Disk Space:
Stay informed about your disk space usage with the df command. We’ll guide you through interpreting the results and keeping your system running smoothly.

  • Example: df -h – Display disk space in a human-readable format.

16. du – Checking Directory Space Usage:
Zoom in on directory space usage with du. Understand how much space your files and directories are taking up.

  • Example: du -sh directory – Display the total disk space used by a directory in a human-readable format.

17. scp – Secure File Copy:
Copy files securely between systems using scp. We’ll cover basic usage and how to transfer files securely over a network.

  • Example: scp file.txt user@remote:/path/to/destination – Copy “file.txt” to a remote server.

18. ssh – Secure Shell Access:
Connect to remote servers securely with ssh. We’ll guide you through the basics of remote access.

  • Example: ssh user@remote – Connect to a remote server as a specific user.

19. wget – Downloading Files from the Web:
Retrieve files from the web with ease using the wget command. Learn how to download files and even entire websites.

  • Example: wget – Download a file from a URL.

20. tar – Archiving and Extracting:
Master the art of compressing and extracting files with tar. We’ll cover creating archives and extracting content seamlessly.

  • Example: tar -cvf archive.tar files/ – Create a tar archive of the “files” directory.

21. man – Accessing Manual Pages:
When in doubt, consult the manual. Learn how to use the man command to access detailed information about other commands.

  • Example: man ls – Display the manual page for the ls command.

22. date – Displaying Date and Time:
Stay in sync with your system’s date and time using the date command. We’ll explore formatting options and practical examples.

  • Example: date '+%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S' – Display the current date and time in a specific format.

23. cal – Displaying a Calendar:
Never miss a date with the cal command. Explore how to display calendars for specific months and years.

  • Example: cal 12 2023 – Display the calendar for December 2023.

24. echo – Printing Text:
Print messages and text to the screen with the echo command. We’ll cover basic printing and more advanced uses.

  • Example: echo "Hello, Linux!" – Print the message “Hello, Linux!” to the terminal.

**25. `

grep- Filtering Text:** Extend your text-searching skills withgrep`. Discover how to filter and extract specific information from a stream of text.

  • Example: echo "Search me" | grep "Search" – Use grep to find a specific pattern in a stream of text.

26. sed – Stream Editor:
Transform text on the fly with sed. We’ll guide you through basic text editing and substitution.

  • Example: echo "Hello World" | sed 's/World/Universe/' – Use sed to replace “World” with “Universe”.

27. awk – Text Processing:
Unlock the power of text processing with awk. Learn how to manipulate and analyze text data effortlessly.

  • Example: echo "1 John\n2 Jane\n3 Bob" | awk '{print $2}' – Use awk to extract the second column.

28. sort – Sorting Lines of Text:
Organize text data with the sort command. We’ll cover sorting options and practical examples.

  • Example: echo -e "apple\nbanana\norange" | sort – Sort a list of fruits alphabetically.

29. uniq – Removing Duplicate Lines:
Clean up your text data by removing duplicates with uniq. We’ll guide you through streamlining your information.

  • Example: echo -e "apple\norange\napple" | uniq – Remove duplicate lines from a list.

30. head and tail – Viewing the Beginning and End of Files:
Navigate large files with ease using head and tail. Learn how to view the start or end of a file efficiently.

  • Example: head -n 5 file.txt – Display the first 5 lines of “file.txt”.

31. find – Searching for Files:
Locate files on your system with the find command. We’ll explore searching by name, type, and other criteria.

  • Example: find /home/user -name "*.txt" – Find all text files in the user’s home directory.

32. locate – Quickly Locating Files:
Accelerate your file searches with locate. Discover how to find files swiftly using a pre-built database.

  • Example: locate myfile.txt – Quickly locate the file “myfile.txt” on your system.

33. history – Command History:
Review and reuse commands from your history with the history command. We’ll cover navigating and managing your command history.

  • Example: history | grep "command" – Search your command history for a specific command.

34. alias – Creating Command Aliases:
Simplify your commands with alias. Learn how to create shortcuts for frequently used commands.

  • Example: alias ll='ls -alF' – Create an alias to list files with detailed information.

35. df – Disk Free Space:
Get a quick overview of available disk space with df. We’ll delve into interpreting the results and keeping your system balanced.

  • Example: df -h – Display disk space in a human-readable format.

36. free – Displaying Memory Usage:
Keep tabs on your system’s memory usage with the free command. Learn how to interpret memory statistics effectively.

  • Example: free -h – Display memory usage in a human-readable format.

37. uptime – System Uptime:
Find out how long your system has been running with the uptime command. We’ll explore the information provided and its significance.

  • Example: uptime – Display the system uptime and load average.

38. curl – Transferring Data with URLs:
Retrieve and send data over the internet using curl. We’ll guide you through basic usage and practical examples.

  • Example: curl – Retrieve the content of a web page.

39. journalctl – Viewing System Logs:
Dive into system logs with journalctl. Learn how to review and analyze log entries for troubleshooting.

  • Example: journalctl -xe – Display the system’s journal with additional details.

40. chmod – Modifying File Permissions:
Fine-tune file permissions with chmod. We’ll cover advanced usage and practical scenarios.

  • Example: chmod u+rwx file.txt – Grant read, write, and execute permissions to the owner of the file.

41. chgrp – Changing Group Ownership: Adjust group ownership of a file using chgrp. Learn how to modify the group associated with a file.

  • Example: chgrp staff file.txt – Change the group ownership of “file.txt” to the “staff” group.

42. ps – Filtering Processes: Refine process information with ps by using filters. Explore how to view specific processes based on criteria.

  • Example: ps aux | grep "process_name" – Display information about a specific process using a filter.

43. killall – Killing Processes by Name: Terminate processes by their names using killall. Learn how to stop multiple processes with a single command.

  • Example: killall firefox – Terminate all instances of the Firefox browser.

44. kill – Sending Signals: Use kill to send signals to processes. Understand how to gracefully stop or restart processes.

  • Example: kill -SIGTERM PID – Send a termination signal to a process with a specific PID.

45. passwd – Changing Passwords: Change user passwords using the passwd command. Learn how to enhance security by updating passwords.

  • Example: passwd – Change the password for the current user.

46. useradd – Adding Users: Add new users to the system with useradd. Explore basic user creation and customization.

  • Example: useradd -m -s /bin/bash newuser – Create a new user with a home directory and Bash shell.

47. userdel – Deleting Users: Remove users from the system using userdel. Learn how to delete user accounts while preserving or deleting home directories.

  • Example: userdel -r olduser – Remove the user “olduser” and delete their home directory.

48. usermod – Modifying User Properties: Modify user properties using usermod. Understand how to change user details or group memberships.

  • Example: usermod -G newgroup existinguser – Add an existing user to a new group.

49. su – Switching Users: Switch between user accounts using su. Explore how to execute commands as another user.

  • Example: su - username – Switch to the user account named “username.”

50. sudo – Executing Commands with Superuser Privileges: Execute commands with elevated privileges using sudo. Learn how to perform administrative tasks.

  • Example: sudo apt-get update – Update the package list with superuser privileges.

Conclusion: Congratulations! You’ve now covered the top 50 Linux commands with practical examples. These commands form the backbone of Linux system administration, providing you with the tools needed to navigate, manage, and secure your system efficiently. As you continue your Linux journey, practice using these commands to build confidence and proficiency in the command-line environment. Happy command-line adventures!

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